Thyroid disease is a slowly progressive metabolic disorder. The incidence rate of thyroid disease is so frequent that it becomes endemic. Malfunctioning of the thyroid gland is the pathophysiology involved in thyroid disease. There are two types of thyroid disease clinically addressed – Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism.
Hyperthyroidism: Increased thyroid hormone secretion due to excessive production leads to hypermetabolic functioning. The activation of the thyroid gland causes excess synthesis and production of thyroid hormone. An elevated level of thyroid hormones in the blood serum is the primary symptom associated with hyperthyroidism. Autoimmunity causes Graves’s disease is an example of hyperthyroidism condition.
Hypothyroidism: This is the opposite of hyperthyroidism means decreased synthesis and release of thyroid hormone. Suppression of thyroid glands inhibits the circulation of thyroid hormone and decrease synthesis also causes insufficient thyroid hormone release. Both of these conditions are considered as a primary hypothyroidism.
Hypothalamus present in brain influence effect on the pituitary gland. Hypothalamic thyrotrophic releasing hormones (TRH) influence the pituitary gland to secrete Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH influence the thyroid gland to secrete thyroid hormones. But in secondary hypothyroidism condition occur when TRH and/or TSH level decreases and suppress thyroid gland secretion.
It has been observed iodine deficiency in diet influence decreased synthesis of thyroid hormone production and cause hypothyroidism.
There are three thyroid hormones are secreting from thyroid glands, including thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) and calcitonin. However, thyroid disease condition mainly involves an increase or decrease synthesis of T3, T4, and TSH.
Iodine also plays a major role in the normal functioning of thyroid hormones. T4 is converted to T3 during the thyroid hormone circulated and iodine plays a major role in this conversion. This conversion is very important to obtain the cellular metabolic functioning performed by thyroid hormones.
Slightly enlarged thyroid gland visible in front of the neck is a common symptom of thyroid disease. Clinically this condition is termed as Goiter. Thyroid disease prevalence rate is almost four times greater in females than in males. With increasing age, females get affected with thyroid hormonal imbalance and most commonly affected by hyperthyroidism, however, some individuals also have hypothyroidism.
There are many herbal ingredients have a thyroid gland corrective functioning and provide therapeutic benefits for both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism conditions. Some phytochemicals obtained from the different medicinal plant are effective to treat hyperthyroidism, whereas some are specifically effective to regulate hypothyroidism condition.
There are some specific symptoms associated with hyperthyroidism, which include uncontrolled hand severing, this skin structure, sudden weight loss, hair texture become fine and brittle, increased heart rate (tachycardia), panic and insomnia. Herbal remedy to treat hyperthyroidism condition are as follows:
This herb is commonly known as Bugleweed and belongs to Lamiaceae family. The different phytochemicals present in these herbs include lithospermic acid, chlorogenic acid, Rosmarinus acid, and caffeic. All these phytochemicals are derivatives of hydrocinnamic acid and effective to suppress thyroid gland secretion by hindering the production of TSH, decrease the conversion from T4 to T3 during peripheral circulation and also inhibiting iodine metabolism. This herb is effective to control Grave’s disease by inhibiting the stimulation of antibodies responsible for Grave’s disease activation.
The common name of this herb is lemon balm and effective to provide the thyrosuppressive effect. This herb has thyroid receptor blocking property and blocks TSH release. It also inhibits cyclic AMP synthesis and deactivates by TSH receptor-induced antibodies production. Thus receptor response on thyroid gland is diminished by decreasing the load of IgG. IgG antibodies do not activate the thyroid gland and therefore the scope of autoimmunity related to thyroid gland decreased. Therefore, this herbal treatment decreases the scope of development of thyroid gland related autoimmunity. Lemon balm provides symptomatic relieve associated with hyperthyroidism. Lemon balm effective to reduce hyperthyroidism induced increased heart rate (tachycardia), insomnia, hyperactivity etc.
This herb is commonly known as motherwort. The combination with other herbal constituents this herb is recommended to treat hyperthyroidism condition. Motherwort has potent anti-inflammatory property, therefore, it is effective to reduce over-stimulation of the thyroid gland induced swelling. Quercetin is an effective anti-inflammatory flavonoid present in this herb as a phytochemical and has an inhibitory effect on enzyme 5 deiodanse, which is effective to reduce thyroid induced swelling. This herbal remedy also effective to provide thyroid gland induced symptomatic relieve, such as palpitation, anxiety, tachycardia etc.
Gromwell is the common name of this herb and has thyrosuppressive property. This herb belongs to Boraginaceae and contains rosmarinic acid as phytochemicals. The primary mechanism of action as the thyrosuppressive effect obtained by blocking TSH release and activation of thyroid follicles. It also restricts the iodine transportation in the thyroid follicle. It can able to suppress the peripheral deionization and restrict the conversion from T4 to T3. Gromwell is effective to inhibit the thyroid hormones secretion.
This herb is commonly named as Rosemarry and belongs to Lamiaceae family. This herb is a rich source of Rosmarinic acid and useful to treat hyperthyroidism. The Rosmarinic acid present as phytochemical in this plant has TSH receptor antagonistic effect and also posses immunoglobin inhibitory property and significant effect is obtainable at the TSH receptor site. It also decreases the rate of conversion of T4 to T3 and may provide a beneficial effect against Grave’s disease.
Sage is the common name of this herb, which belongs to the Lamiaceae family. Rosmarinic acid is one of the primary phytochemical of this herb and concentration. of this bioactive phytochemical is quite high in this herb. Therefore, this herb efficiently blocks the TSH on receptor site and also has immunoglobin inhibitory effects on Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor. It reduces the peripheral conversion of T4 to T3. Apart from thyrosuppressive effect, this herb possesses antioxidant, nervine, spasmolytic and antiviral properties, which also makes this herb therapeutically effective.
There are some specific symptoms associated with hypothyroidism, which include puffiness in hands, skin dryness, uncontrolled weight gain, hair texture become coarse and dry, excessive hair fall leads to hair thinning, low blood pressure, chronic fatigue condition, and puffy eyes and face. Herbal remedy to treat hypothyroidism condition are as follows:
Gotu kola is the common name of this herb and effective to treat hypothyroidism. The different bioactive phytochemicals present in this herb include asiatic acid, asiaticoside, madecassic acid or brahmic acid and brahmoside. Research experts find that this herb stimulates T4 production, as this herb able to improve vitality and enerzging property. Traditionally the tincture of this herbal preparation used for treating hypothyroidism condition. Beside this, Gotu kola also regulates nervous system functionality.
This herb has several local names, such as winter cherry, Indian ginseng, and Ashwagandha, which belongs to the Solanaceae family. The phytochemicals of this herbs are mainly derivatives of alkaloids, steroidal and saponin chemicals. Saponin glycosides are the primary active ingredient present in the herb and can regulate effect on thyroid hormonal gland. It increases synthesis of T4 and thus maximum amount of T4 peripherally converts to T3 and improve thyroid hormone level. This herb acts as an adaptogen and also possess potent antioxidant property. The efficacy of this herb in stimulating the thyroid hormone production is investigated through a research study. Researchers also reported Withania Somnifera enhances the anti-peroxidation activity in tissue. Thus oxidative stress-related thyroid tissue damage can also be prevented by supplementation of this herbal product.
The extract of this herbal constituent is a rich source of oleo-resin. This herb is commonly named as Guggul. The oleo-resin content of this herbal product is a rich source of Z- guggulsterone and provide a potent thyroid stimulating effect. This bioactive phytochemical also increases the T3 production by supporting the conversion reaction of T4 to T3. BY regulating thyroid hormonal level, it also effective to manage LDL cholesterol level and also maintain the body weight. In Ayurveda, this herb is specifically used as a thyroid gland stimulating agent.
This herb contains terpenes and essential oils and both of these contents effective to treat hypothyroidism. This herb is commonly named as Forskohlii. This herb enhances the synthesis of thyroid hormones by promoting the AMP cycle production. Prolonged therapeutic incompliance of the conventional therapy can be managed by recommending this herb with prescribed medicine to get a quick improvement of the condition.
This is algae and also known as Bladder wrack. Both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism affected patients can get benefit from this algae. This special type of algae belongs to Fucaceae family. This alga is categorized under seaweeds and is a great source of iodine. Approximately 50mg iodine is obtained from dried Bladder wrack algae. Iodine content of this algae helps to stimulate thyroid gland and assist to restore the thyroid gland functioning. It is effective to decrease the size of the goiter size. Apart from iodine content, this algae also contains L-fucose compound. Both of this essential elements assist to provide anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-obesity,and anti-carcinogenic effects.